The Summary of Trenggalek town's history is taken from the original book, "The History of Trenggalek", which is collected and published by the Committee on Trenggalek History in collaboration with historical and pedagogical experts from IKIP Malang. It contains five main chapters defined chronologically, namely:
A. Period Of Pre Perdikan
B. Period Of Perdikan:
1. Period Of Hindu Perdikan.
2. Period Of Islamic Perdikan.
C. Early Period Of Trenggalek (Trenggalek Awal).
D. Shining Period Of Trenggalek (Trenggalek Gemilang).
E. Influential Period Of Trenggalek (Trenggalek Wibawa).
A. Pre Perdikan Period
In pre-historic times or in pre-perdikan period, in the area now known as Trenggalek there were small centers of human residence with very simple culture as was also common in other spots of Java Island at those times. Most of historical objects found here are of Nirleka-cultural type: Watu Saji, Watu dakon, Lumpang Watu, Watu Palinggih, and so forth. Discovered mainly in the rubbles of human habitations and pathways at the particular wide area presently occupying some parts of Pacitan, Panggul, Wajak and Tulungagung, these things display how Trenggalek people had existed even since pre-historic period and how they led their ancient lives by way of Neolithic Megalithic traditions.
B. Perdikan Period
Following pre-historical period was Perdikan Period, ie a stretch of time in which Trenggalek humans were already familiar with basic literature and writing despite their very modest way of lives. But this time they didn't govern themselves. At the early stages they were runned by Kahuripan Kingdom since its first reigner, Mpu Sendhok. This was proven by old scriptual stone named Prasasti Kampak. Written on the behalf of Mpu Sendhok, the inscriptions tell that Sendhok became a king in East Java in Saka year of 851 (929 AD) and gave Trenggalek an administrative attribute as Perdikan Kampak. His power gripped almost all segments of today's Trenggalek Regency, from its southern-most districts bordering Hindian Ocean like Panggul, Prigi dan Munjungan to its nothernmost ones (Bendungan and Pogalan). King Sendhok authorized Bathara I Sang Hyang Prasadha Kabhaktian I to rule Trenggalek and it is Bathara I who then gave it the name "Perdikan Kampak".
The Kingdom of Kahuripan collapsed and subsequently Kediri Kingdom sat at its place. This new throne reached its glorious days under King Airlangga's reign. Trenggalek was lifted to the spotlight when Kediri was controlled by its last ruler, King Sri Sarweswara Kertajaya Triwikramamawatara Ninditya Srenggalancana Digwijayatunggadewa (King Dhandhanggendhis) as can be seen in Prasasti Kamulan. Made in the year of 1194 AD or 1116 Saka at Kamulan Village, Durenan Subdistrict, Trenggalek Regency, this scriptual stone consists of 31 lines of words at the front side and 33 lines at the back.
The main part of Kamulan inscriptions says that in 1194 AD Kertajaya was forced to leave the palace and take refuge to Kamulan. He stayed here for some time to hide from his insurgents in Kediri and to regroup his splintered soldiers. The locals gave him not only blessing and protection but also military assistance. When finally Kertajaya won the war and reclaimed the throne, the people of Kamulan played significant part in this success. As a proof of his gratitude, Kertajaya held special treatment for Kamulan folk and declared their territory "Perdikan Kamulan".
According to a team of respectable experts in cultural and historical research, Prasasti Kamulan has by far been the strongest clue to trace down the history of Trenggalek systematically and, indeed, it is worth taking it as a base line to start chronicling this regency. Kamulan inscription was written in "Bhadrawulan da perangan Suklapaksa, dinten Budha Kaliwuan tahun Saka 1116" or on Wednesday Kliwon, August 31, 1194 AD. THis time predication has then been formally picked up to define when Trenggalek Regency was firstly born and established.
In general, Trenggalek's perdikan period is divided into two phases: Hindu and Islam. In Hindu times, people edified temples and created religiously hallowed things like statues and yonis. Nowadays the remnants of this Hindu-typed heritage can be observed at Dompyong village (Bendungan Subdistrict) , Ngreco hamlet (Sukorame village, Gandusari Subdistrict), Watulimo Subdistrict and in other places.
When Islam came to overtake people's faith, it must have been through deep and comprehensive proccess due to the fact that it took only one or two centuries to make a complete conversion. Yet, there's no record whatsoever on the radical happenings and Islam itself left not a lot of ages-old religious footprints to today's Trenggalek. Only two feature most prominantly as signs of Islamic robust clout in those times:
- Pondok Pesantren Sumbergayam, Durenan Subdistrict.
- Islam styled Grave of Menak Sopal with words written on the tombstone of his wife, Candra Sengkala Memet, reading "Sirnaning Puspita Cinatur Wulan" which means the year of 1490 Saka or the year of 1568 AD.
C. Beginning Period of Trenggalek
This period extended from 1730 to 1932 AD, occuring amid turbulences in the Dutch control over East India (now Indonesia). The startup could possibly be Batavia's Pecinan War in October 10, 1740, where thousands of China ethnic launched a mutiny and Dutch military responded harshly by murdering and persecuting those involved in rebellion.
Hopeless in Batavia, the bulk of rebels fled away toward Mid-Java and their presence here in huge number subsequently spurred profound effect on Kartasura's Palace. The Dutch-friendly King of Surakarta, Sunan Paku Buwana II, was forced to wage a war against Sunan Kuning, nicknamed Ma of Kartasura, Sunan Paku Buwana II, was forced to wage a war against Sunan Kuning, nicknamed Mas Garendi, who politically defended the mutiny and provided full protection for Chinese insurgents. On June 30, 1742, ensuing a total defeat in Kartasura's violent confrontation, Paku Buwana II lost his throne and was compelled to go away from his palace. He then alighted on Ponorogo and joined forces with the local Regent, Mertodiningrat, to arrange counter attack. In several months later, with Mertodiningrat's meaningful support, Paku Buwana II set up revenge and he eventually managed to eradicate and destroy all rebel forces.
As a token of his gratitude, Paku Buwana II sent Regent Mertodiningrat a political gift by appointing his son, named Sumotruno, to be the regent of Trenggalek. Thus it is Sumotruno who historically became the first regent of Trenggalek and it is in his moments that Trenggalek received an administrative status as a regency for the first time. The complete line up of Trenggalek's regents taking power throughout this period are as follows:
- Raden Ngabehi Surengrono (in the era of Mangkubumen war); in accordance with Gianti Agreement dated February 13, 1755, Trenggalek was split into two regions, its eastern zona becoming teritorial section of Ngrawa, and its west being teritorial section of Pacitan.
- RT Mangunnegoro
- RT Aryo Kusumo Adinoto
- R. Ngabehi Joyopuspito (RT Pusponegoro)
- R. Gondokusumo (Tumenggung Sumo Adiningrat/1845-1850)
- Diredjo Mangun (1850 - 1894)
- Wijoyo Kusumo (1894 - 1904)
- Purbo Negoro (1904 - 1932)
D. Shining Period Of Trenggalek
During this period nothing of historically significant event took place except one occurance concerning the power transfer from Dutch government to the government of Republic of Indonesia. During the ceremony Major Soemadi and Karis performed as the Dutch representatives meanwhile Moekardi, R. Roestamadji and Kardono acted on the behalf of Indonesian government.
E. Authoritative Period Of Trenggalek
Based on Law Number 20, 1950, Trenggalek commanded 4 Residences (Kawedanaan), namely:
The full names of Trenggalek's regents in this period are as follows:
- R. Lantip; during his tenure, DPRS (Provisional Council of People's Representative) was formed and chaired by R. Oetomo;
- Moeprapto; under the Law No. 20 and No. 12, 1950, and Governmental Regulation Number 52, 1950, Trenggalek's administrative area was divided again in a way like the way it is today. Moeprapto emerged as the first regent following the new division. His leadership runned from December 27, 1950, until January 21, 1958. In 1951 the then people of Trenggalek met the biggest political drama in their lives when the first President of Indonesia and the Proclaimer of Indonesian Independence, Ir Soekarno, was pleased to come to Trenggalek and deliver a heroic speech at Trenggalek's main square;
- Abdul Karim Diposastro, accompanied by Chief R. Soepangat Prawirawinata
- Soetomo Koencahya, whose implication in Communist Movement (G 30 S / PKI) ended up in his execution before local officers of Indonesian military.
- M. Hardjito ( October 1, 1965-January 30, 1967); he was the first to lead Trenggalek as the New Order regime replaced the Old Order in 1965.
- Moeladi (February 1, 1967 - October 1, 1967)
- Soetran (1968 - 1975); in his administration, in 1974, Trenggalek became the first regency in East Java, which was awarded "Parasamya Purnakarya Nugraha". Thanks to this bright achievement, he was then appointed Governor of Irian Jaya by Jakarta's Central Government.
- M. Ch. Poernanto;
- Soedarso (September 4, 1975 - October 2, 1985); it is in his times that Trenggalek determined its anniversary on August 31, harking back to its birht date, August 31, 1194 AD as indicated by Prasasti Kamulan.
- H. Haroen Al Rashid (October 2, 1985 - October 2, 1990)
- Drs. H. Slamet (October 2, 1990 - October 2, 1995
- Drs. H. Ernomo (October 2, 1995 - 2 October 2000)
- Ir. H. Mulyadi WR (October 2, 2000 - October 2, 2005)
- H. Suharto (October 2, 2005 - October 4, 2010)
- Ir. H. Mulyadi WR, MMT. (October 4, 2010 - his terms will terminate on October 4, 2015).
Trenggalek name originates from words "Treng lan Galih" meaning "bright within heart". Over centuries, locals' slip of tongue is supposed to have caused the distortive pronouncement. Despite this linguistic divertion, however, the quintessential significance of phrase "Treng lan Galih" remains intact and sustained in word "Trenggalek", perpetuating the unspoken dreams Trenggalek's ancestors had ever wrought when they dealt with the earth they lived up from. Manifested further in more operational tier, these dreams become the bone of Trenggalek's developmental slogan "Jaya Wijayagung Trenggalek Jayati" meaning "May the grand glory come to the glorious Trenggalek".
You may read the recent History :